Under the North Star: Black Communities in Upper Canada Before Confederation (1867)
Based on detailed research, Under the North Star – Black Communities in Upper Canada examines what happened to black refugees once they arrived in Canada. Fugitive slaves and free blacks alike fled to Canada, especially after the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, and in making this move, they revealed the intense resistance to slavery and racism in North America. Like the maroons, cimarones, palenque, and kilombo in the Caribbean, Hispanic America and Brazil, the black communi-ties of Upper Canada asserted their dignity through their independence, hard work, and persistence in maintaining sanctuaries from slavery.
Simpson, Donald G.
Lovejoy, Paul E., ed.
Donald G. Simpson, Under the North Star: Black Communities in Upper Canada Before Confederation (1867) (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., 2005)